|Improvement of oral health in Africa in the 21st century ? the role of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme|
Poul Erik Petersen
World Health Organization, Oral Health Programme, Geneva, Switzerland
Chronic diseases and injuries are overtaking communicable diseases as the leading health problems in all but a few parts of the world. This rapidly changing global disease pattern is closely linked to changing lifestyles which include diet rich in sugars, widespread use of tobacco and increased consumption of alcohol. These lifestyle factors also significantly impact oral health, and oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence in all regions of the world. Like all diseases, they affect primarily the disadvantaged and socially marginalized populations, causing severe pain and suffering, impairing functionability and impacting quality of life. Traditional treatment of oral diseases is extremely costly even in industrialized countries and is unaffordable in most low and middle-income countries. The WHO Global Strategy for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases and the ?common risk factor approach? offer new ways of managing the prevention and control of oral diseases. This report outlines major characteristics of the current oral health situation in Africa and development trends as well as WHO strategies and approaches for better oral health in the 21st century.
Key words: Africa, oral health, risk factor, development
SQUAMOUS ODONTOGENIC TUMOUR: REPORT OF FIVE CASES FROM NIGERIA AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Adebiyi K.E., Odukoya O., Taiwo, E.O.
Department of Oral Biology and Oral Pathology Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idiaraba, Lagos, Nigeria
Objectives: To report and describe 5 cases of squamous odontogenic tumour(S.O.T) that accumulated in the file of the biopsy services of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos during a period of 21 years, review the literature and to comment on the nature of this rare tumour.
Methods: Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of each of the tumours histologically diagnosed as S.O.T were reviewed with the objective of reconfirming the diagnosis in the biopsy report file.
Results: 5 cases of S.O.T. were diagnosed during this period. The mean age of occurrence (+SD) was 36.6 years + 10 (range 20 to 45 years). All the five (100%) cases presented in females, 4(80%) occurred in the mandible and 1 (20%) occurred in the maxilla. All the 4 mandibular lesions occurred in the body of the mandible while the single maxillary lesion occurred in the posterior region.
Discussion: All the 5 cases in the present series presented in females, though review of the literature showed that this tumour do occur in males also but with a female predominance. The mandibular prevalence (4 out of 5) in this series contrasts with reports in the literature. This variation may be due the limited number cases studied, but are however important additions to the few reported cases.
Conclusion: Care should be taken not to misdiagnose this condition as acanthomatous ameloblastoma or well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Although, it has an infiltrative pattern of growth, S.O.T. has become accepted as a distinct lesion rather than a variant of ameloblastoma. Treatment should be by conservative excision
Keywords: Squamous odontogenic tumour, report, Nigeria.
Correspondence: Adebiyi K.E
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery and Oral Pathology
Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife.
Editorial to Volume 3
THE NEED FOR IMPROVED ORAL HEALTH TRAINING, RESEARCH AND CARE IN AFRICA
I am happy to present to you the third Volume of the African Journal of Oral Health (AJOH). This particular edition contains important articles on Squamous Odontogenic Tumours; Dental health among school population in Nigeria; Caries experience in the primary dentition of nursery school children; Dietary counseling in the prevention and control of oral diseases; Prosthetic management of ectodermal dysplasia and partial anodontia ; Breast-feeding, bottle-feeding and caries experience; and Oral candidosis in HIV/AIDS.
There is an urgent need to improve oral health research and care on the African continent. Global technological advancement must not leave Africa behind. It is comforting that several initiatives aimed at improving oral and general health had been put together on the African Continent in recent times. It is my hope that this trend will not only continue but, will increase and extend to other development oriented endeavours. The activities of the Federation Dentaire Inernationale (FDI) and the World Health Organisation are also noted and commended.
Reported Research findings in Journals such as AJOH have substantial influence on health sciences education and clinical practice in Africa. While it can be argued that this is the situation globally, the influence of journals appears to be particularly more penetrating in the developing countries where textbooks are not easily available or affordable.
Therefore, AJOH will continue to work assiduously towards the achievement of its noble objectives, with particular focus on the African continent.
Professor E. O. Ogunbodede
African Journal of Oral Health.